*Data from different sources may vary by 10%. For 2022, US reported highest GDP of USD 25.46 trillion followed by China’s GDP USD 18.1 trillion. India ranks fifth with USD 3.39 trillion, accounting for 3.37% of World GDP. The IMF has projected India’s GDP to grow to USD 3.75 trillion in 2023-24. [Source: Deccan Herald 4 July 2023 and also World Bank]
- Area: 3,287,263 square km (3.3 Million sq.km)
- Population: 1.399 billion (2023 est.)
- Median age: 28.7 years
- Life expectancy: 70.8 years (2020 WHO data)
- Labor force: 476.67 million (2021 est.)
- Exchange rates 1 USD = 82.2169 Rupees (RBI 31 Mar 2023)
- Gross domestic product (GDP): 3.39* trillion USD (FY 2022-23)
Agricultural sector 18%; Industrial sector: 31%; Services sector: 51%)
- Exports: 770.18 billion USD (pib.gov.in FY 2022-23)
- Imports: 892.18 billion USD (pib.gov.in FY 2022-23)
- Foreign direct investment (FDI): 46 billion USD (FY 2022-23)
- Inward Remittances**: 107.5 million USD (RBI FY 2022-23)
**During 2022, India received maximum Inward remittance of more than 100 million USD, followed by Mexico and China.
Location: Longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' East and latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' North.
Highest point: Mount Kanchenjunga 8,598 metres and the lowest point is Indian Ocean.
Coastline: 7516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
Neighbouring Countries: Shares its borders with Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Nepal and Bhutan. India is seperated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of sea.
Ethnic Groups: All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.
Flag: The Indian National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
National Days: 26th January (Republic Day); 15th August (Independence Day); 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday)
India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which came into effect on 26 January 1950. Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union and the states.
The Government of India comprises three branches:
(1) The executive of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice president, and the Union Council of Ministers—with the cabinet being its executive committee—headed by the prime minister.
(2) The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. Operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system, it comprises an upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and a lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
(3) Judiciary comprising the supreme court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, high courts, and a large number of trial courts.
India is the member of the (British) Common wealth of Nations, a political association of 56 member states. Purpose is to work towards shared goals of prosperity, democracy and peace. It is not a military alliance.Every two years the meeting is held in a different member state and is chaired by that nation's head, who becomes the Commonwealth Chair-in-Office until the next meeting. In 1983, chairperson was Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi.
India is the member of United Nations (UN) and other UN bodies like UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation); and WHO (World Health Organization).
India is also member of many International Organizations such as: BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa); SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation); SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation) and NAM (Non-Aligned Movement).
India is also member of many International agencies such as: ADB (Asian Development Bank); IMF (International Monetary Fund); IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency); and ITU (International Telecommunication Union).
The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons:
south-west monsoon season (June-September)
post monsoon season (October-November)
Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 8 Union Territories. There are a total of 739 districts in India.
The capital city is New Delhi. Other major cities include Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore.
The mainland comprises of four regions: the great mountain zone; plains of the Ganga and the Indus; the desert region; and the southern peninsula. Extending from the snow-covered Himalayan heights to the tropical rain forests of the south. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.
Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, measures about 3,214 km from north to south and about 2,933 km from east to west.
The 1961 census of India listed 1,652 languages, and 220 Indian languages have died in just the last half-century, with out a trace. Some estimates that one language/dialect is lost every month.
The big six languages - Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil and Urdu - are each spoken by more than 50 million people.
A total of 122 languages are each spoken by more than 10,000 people.
India has 22 official languages. Schools teach in 58 different languages. There are newspapers in 87 languages. And, about a dozen major scripts are used to communicate in these languages.
India doesn't have a national language. Hindi and English are both official languages. Indian languages belong to four of the world's major language groups: Indo-European, Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman.
Four major world religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated there, while Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam arrived in the first millennium CE and shaped the region's diverse culture.
India has the second (or third) highest population of Muslims in the world. The first Muslims in India are thought to have been traders who came to Kerala during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.
The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively.
Agriculture is the mainstay of India as it employs more than 50% of the Indian population; the rest are employed in industrial and services sectors. India is among the top five producers of tea, silk, spices, sugar, cotton, rubber, coffee and fish in the world. The Agriculture sector in India accounts for 13.7 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Natural Resources are Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.
India is the largest producer of nitrogenous fertiliser. India ranks 3rd among the coal producing countries. Cement Plants are large consumer of energy and the main source is coal. The iron and steel industry is the largest consumer of energy in the industrial sector using electricity.
India is aggressively working towards establishing itself as a leader in industrialisation and technological development. Significant developments in the nuclear energy sector are likely as India looks to expand its nuclear capacity. Moreover, nanotechnology is expected to transform the Indian pharmaceutical industry.
India has the world's largest film industry. More than 1,100 movies are produced, on average, each year, twice as many as the American film industry and ten times as many as Britain produces.
India exported about 422 billion USD merchandise and imported 613 billion USD during 2021-2022. So total trade 1,035 billion USD 2021–22 during 2021-2022. Top 10 trading partners with India with total trade in brackets are: United States (119.4); China (115.4); United Arab Emirates (72.9); Saudi Arabia (42); Switzerland (18.11); Germany (21.9); Hong Kong (34.0); Indonesia (19.2); South Korea (20.5) and Malaysia (16.93).
Natural HazardsMonsoon floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides.
Environment - Current IssuesAir pollution control, energy conservation, solid waste management, oil and gas conservation, forest conservation, etc.
Science & Technology
The Government aims to invest 2 per cent of the country’s GDP on research and development (R&D) in its 12th Five-Year Plan period (2013-17). At present, the country has a total of 16 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), 30 National Institutes of Technology (NITs), 162 universities awarding about 4,000 doctorate and 35,000 post-graduate degrees, and about 40 research laboratories run by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).
Modern India is one of the few nations to have gone into outer space. The country has regularly undertaken space missions, including missions to the moon and the famed Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). 27 satellites including 11 that facilitate the communication network to the country are operational. The space budget includes funds for Aditya-1, India’s first satellite to study the Sun, and is intended to launch after 2017.
India is gradually becoming self-reliant in nuclear technology. Recently, the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Unit-1 (KKNPP 1) with 1,000 MW capacity was commissioned, while the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project Unit-2 (KKNPP-2) with 1,000 MW capacity is under commissioning.
India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) aims to study the properties of atmospheric neutrinos, which are subatomic particles produced by the decay of radioactive elements. An initiative Marine Advanced Simulation Training (MAST) centre is among the world’s most advanced simulation centres, and would be a part of the ongoing efforts of MOL and its partner Synergy Group, a ship management firm with over 100 vessels under its management, to step up recruitment of seafarers from India.
There are plans to establish an Indian Innovation Centre (IIC) and all states of the country will be its members.
MNCs have shifted or are shifting their research and development (R&D) base to India. In India, Global Capability centers (GCCs) of more than 1,400 MNCs (multinational corporations) employ 1.3 million highly skilled people with a revenue of USD 36 billion in 2021. Nasscom projects that by 2025 India could have 2,000 GCCs employing 2 million people and generating USD 60 billion of revenue.
India is also expected to witness strong growth in its agriculture and pharmaceutical sectors as the government is investing large sums to set up dedicated research centres for R&D in these sectors. The Indian IT industry is also expected to add to the development of the R&D sector.
National Council of Science Museums (NCSM), an autonomous organisation under the Union Ministry of Culture, is engaged in the establishment of Science Centres across the country.
Electronics, IT and Telecom Industry
- Telephone Subscriber Base: 1,170.38 million [Dec 2022]
- Teledensity: 84.56 [Dec 2022]
- Internet Subscribers: 865.90 million [Dec 2022]
- Broadband subscribers: 832.20 million [Dec 2022]
- Mobile Internet Subscribers: 832.35 million [Dec 2022]
- Active Internet users: 692 million [2022 estimate]
- eCommerce: 74.8 billion USD [2022 estimate]
- Production of Electronics Sector: 6.4 trillion Rupees [FY 2021-22]
- IT-ITeS industry Revenue: 245 billion USD [FY 2022-23]
- IT-ITeS export Revenue: 194 billion USD [FY 2022-23]
- Employment in IT-ITeS Industry: 5.4 million [FY 2022-23]
India had broken off from an ancient supercontinent Gondwanaland and was moving slowly northwards. About 50 million years ago, the India continental plate collided with Asia, buckling the coastal area of both continents and creating the Himalayas - the world's youngest and the highest mountain range. Evidence of this is provided by fossilised sea shells that can still be found high in the mountains. The plate on which the subcontinent rests continues to press slowly northwards, and is the reason why the height of Mount Everest increases slightly every year.
Indus/Sarswathi civilization, Vedic, early Tamil sangams age – 7000-4000 BC
Indo-Iranian, Dravidian civilisation – 3000-2000 BC
Mass migration – evolution of Indian/Hindu culture – 1500BC - 700AD
*Hindu refers to culture of people east of Indus.
Who are we Indians?
Difficult to say, with so much of invasion, immigration and interaction with rest of the world. Many empires have disappeared, with out a trace including last British empire after second world war. Today, India is a plural society and a repository of multiplicity of cultures and more than thousands of tribes..
Indian maritime history dates back 5,000 years. The first tidal dock is believed to have been built at Lothal around 2300 BC during the Indus Valley Civilisation. The Rig Veda written around 1500 BC, credits Varuna with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes naval expeditions. There is reference to the side wings of a vessel called Plava, which give stability to the ship under storm conditions. The earliest known reference to an organisation devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the 4th century BC. Powerful militaries included those of the Maurya, Gupta, Satavahana, Chola, Vijayanagara, Mughal and Maratha empires.
Ancient Indian empire
Indian subcontinent has seen some of the greatest and vast empires in the ancient world. Most of the time, Indian subcontinent had many independent kingdoms, with few large ones. Large empires was very rare (15% of the time). Borders were also changing, like any other country in the world. For any country's border, one has to specify when, and during whose rule. Ten large Indian empires in million Sqkm (period or year) are:
1 ) Mauryan Empire 5.0 [250 BCE]
2 ) British India 4.5 [1911 CE]
3 ) Mughal Empire 4.0 [1690 CE]
4 ) Gupta Empire 3.5 [400 CE]
5 ) Indian Republic 3.29 [Present]
6 ) Delhi Sultanate 3.2 [1312 CE]
7 ) Maratha Empire 2.5 [1760 CE]
8 ) Kushan Empire 2.0 [200 CE]
9 ) Harsha Empire 1.0 [648 CE]
10) Gurjara-Pratihara 1.0 [860 CE]
Large 10 Global Empires:
1 British Empire 35.5 [1920 CE]
2 Mongol Empire 24.0 [1270/1309 CE]
3 Russian Empire 22.8 [1895 CE]
4 Qing dynasty 14.7 [1790 CE]
5 Spanish Empire 13.7 [1810 CE]
6 French colonial empire 11.5[1920 CE]
7 Abbasid Caliphate 11.1 [750 CE]
8 Umayyad Caliphate 11.1 [720 CE]
9 Yuan dynasty 11.0 [1310 CE]
10 Xiongnu Empire 9.0 [176 BC]
Dates/Years are approximate.
- Megasthenes (350 BCE– c. 290 BCE) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat, ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period. Megasthenes described India in his book Indica. The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Yavana Kingdom, covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent. This kingdom was in existence from c. 200 BC to the beginning of the common era.
- Vasco da Gama of Portugal discovered a new sea route from Europe to India in 1498. The Portuguese established the first European trading centre at Quilon (Kollam) in 1502.
- Cornelis-de-Hartmann, Dutch Citizen reached India in 1596 AD. Established in Pulicat, Nagapatnam and Sadras. Dutch had a monopoly on the spice trade in India in the 17th century.
- In 1600 CE, Captain William Hawkins of British East India Company set sail from England and arrived in India. The company established trading posts in Surat (1619) and Madras (1639). By 1647, the company had 23 factories and settlements in India.
- Francois Caron (French Governor), reached Surat in 1667 and established the first trading post (Surat) in the subcontinent.
Starting with the Portuguese, Spanish, French and British tried to get the best trading rights from the ruling Mughals and other rulers in the 17th century. As native Indian empires declined, they took territories like Goa, Pondicherry, Calcutta and slowly many parts of India (traders becoming landlords/rulers). After second world war, these countries left their colonies or oversea territories. Indian Republic and Pakistan was born in 1947 from the land vacated by European powers.
Population in India
Ancient India had more hunter gathers. But with agriculture, our resources as well as population expanded.
Indian Subcontinenet population was around 30 million during Mauryas (300 BCE). Grew to 70 million during medieval era (1000 AD). 150 million during Mughal era. In the early 18th century, the average life expectancy in Mughal India was 35 years. Compared to 34 years in England, 30 years in France, and about 25 years in Prussia. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_India]
According to the Indian census, carried out in 2011, the population of India was exactly 1,210,193,422, which means India has crossed the 1-billion mark. This is the second most populous country of the world after China and the various studies have projected that India will be world’s number-1 populous country, surpassing China, by 2025.
Along with western dress, Turkish/Arbian dresses like pyjama and kurtha have been accepted as Indian dress. Traditional saree is still popular.
Traditional Sarongs/dothis/lungis, less popular in India, are worn by both men and women in many parts of the world, especially in south and southeast Asia. Sarongs are extremely comfortable, striking, and versatile.
Men and women used to dress similar in Ancient times. Lower garment is Sarong or Dhoti. Upper garment is draped in various styles. Stitched garments are not encouraged and derided as “Mlechha” dress. Due to influence of Persians a small number of western parts of India started adopting trousers as a part of the dress. In many South Indian temples and religious rituals, it is tradition to wear cloths without any type of stitching.
Unique to India
- The Taj Mahal is one of the popular attraction. But India has 31 other UNESCO World Heritage Sites within its borders. These sites include hill forts in Rajasthan; mountain railways in Shimla, Darjeeling, and the Nilgiri Hills; the Western Ghats mountain range in the southwest of the country; the Ajanta and Ellora Caves in Maharashtra; the Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bengal; and many other national parks and wildlife reserves. South India is well known for temple architecture.
- Chess, Algebra, Trigonometry, zero, Decimal System and Calculus are attributed to India. Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun to be 365.258756484 days.
The value of "pi" was calculated by the Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century
- The Takshila university was established in 700 BC. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education.
- The Granite Temple (the Brihadeswara Temple) at Tanjavur, shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. Built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola.
- The Baily Bridge located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains, built in 1982 is the highest bridge.
- Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called "the Ancient City" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world.
- ... many more to list
National Songs: Lyrics in English and Tamil:
National motto of India: सत्यमेव जयते satyam-eva jayate
Means Truth alone triumphs or in Tamil வாய்மையே வெல்லும்)
It is inscribed in Devanagari lipi at the base of the national emblem, which is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion of Asoka at Sarnath
- Jana-Gana-Mana-Adhinayaka, Jaya He
ஜன கண மன அதிநாயக ஜெய ஹே
பாரத பாக்ய விதாதா.
Thou art the rulers of the minds of all people, dispenser of India's destiny.
பஞ்சாப சிந்து குஜராத்த மராட்டா
திராவிட உத்கல வங்கா.
Thy name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindh , Gujarat, Maratha, Dravida, Orissa and Bengal
விந்திய இமாச்சல யமுனா கங்கா
உச்சல ஜலதி தரங்கா.
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
- Tava Subha Name Jage
Tava Subha Ashisa Mage
Gahe Tava Jaya Gatha.
தவ ஷுப நாமே ஜாகே,
தவ ஷுப ஆஷிஷ மாகே,
காஹே தவ ஜெய காதா.
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Yamuna and Ganga and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
- Jana-Gana-Mangala Dayaka, Jaya He
Jaya He, Jaya He, Jaya He,
Jaya, Jaya, Jaya, Jaya He
ஜன கண மங்கள தாயக ஜெயஹே
பாரத பாக்ய விதாதா.
ஜெய ஹே, ஜெய ஹே, ஜெய ஹே,
ஜெய ஜெய ஜெய, ஜெய ஹே.
Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Vande Maataram, vande maataram
Sujalam sufalam malayaja-shitalaam
Shashya-shyaamala maataram! Vande maataram
வந்தே மாதரம்! வந்தே மாதரம்!
சுஜலாம் சுபலாம் | மலயஜ சீதலாம்
ஷஸ்ய ஷியாமளாம் | மாதரம் | வந்தே மாதரம்
I bow to thee! Rich with thy hurrying streams, bright with orchard gleams, Cool with thy winds of delight, Dark fields waving Mother of might!
Suhaasini sumadhur bhaashinim
Sukhada varada maataram| Vande maataram
ஷுப்ர ஜ்யோத்ஸன புலகித யாமினிம்
புல்லகுஸுமித த்ருமதல ஷோபினிம்
சுஹாசினிம் சுமதுர பாஷினிம்
சுகதாம் வரதாம் மாதரம் | வந்தே மாதரம்
Glory of moonlight dreams, Over thy branches and lordly streams, Clad in thy blossoming trees, Mother, giver of ease Laughing low and sweet! Mother I kiss thy feet, Speaker sweet and low! Mother, to thee I bow.
Koti Koti Kantha Kalakalaninada Karaale
Koti Koti Bhujaidhritakharakaravale
Abalaa Keno Maa Eto Bale
Bahubaladharinim Namami Tarinim
Ripudalavarinim Maataram | Vande Mataram
கோடி கோடி கண்ட கலகல நினாத கராலே
கோடி கோடி புஜைர் த்ருத கர கரவாலே
அபலா கெனோ மா நமாமி தாரிணீம்
பஹுபல தாரிணீம் நமாமி தாரிணீம்
ரிபுதல வாரிணீம் மாதரம் வந்தே மாதரம்
Who hath said thou art weak in thy lands When the sword flesh out in the seventy million hands And seventy million voices roar Thy dreadful name from shore to shore? With many strengths who art mighty and stored, To thee I call Mother and Lord! Though who savest, arise and save! To her I cry who ever her foeman drove Back from plain and Sea And shook herself free.
Tumi Vidyaa Tumi Dharma
Tumi Hridi Tumi Marma
Tvam Hi Pranah Sharire Baahute Tumi Maa Shakti
Hridaye Tumi Maa Bhakti
Tomaara Pratima Gadi | Mandire Mataram | Vande Mataram
துமி வித்யா திமி தர்ம
துமி ருதி துமி மர்ம த்வம் ஹி ப்ராணா சரீரே
பாஹுதே துமி மா சக்தி
ருதயே துமி மா பக்தி
தோமாரயி ப்ரதிமா கடி | மந்திரே மாதரம் | வந்தே மாதரம்
Thou art wisdom, thou art law, Thou art heart, our soul, our breath Though art love divine, the awe In our hearts that conquers death. Thine the strength that nervs the arm, Thine the beauty, thine the charm. Every image made divine In our temples is but thine.
Tvam Hi Durga Dashapraharanadharini
Kamala Kamaladala Vihaarini
Vani Vidyadayini Namami Tvam
Namami Kamalam Amalam Atulam
Sujalam Suphalam Maataram
Shyaamalam Saralam Susmitam Bhushhitam
Dharanim Bharanim Maataram | Vande Mataram...
த்வம் ஹி துர்கா தசப்ரஹண தாரிணீம்
கமலாம் கமலதல விஹாரிணீம்
வாணீ வித்யா தாயினீம் நமாமி த்வாம்
நமாமி கமலாம் அமலாம் அதுலாம்
சுஜலாம் சுபலாம் மாதரம் வந்தே மாதரம்
ச்யாமளாம் சரளாம் ஸுஸ்மிதாம் புஷிதாம்
தரணீம் பரணீம் மாதரம் | வந்தே மாதரம் | வந்தே மாதரம்
Thou art Durga, Lady and Queen, With her hands that strike and her swords of sheen, Thou art Lakshmi lotus-throned, And the Muse a hundred-toned, Pure and perfect without peer, Mother lend thine ear, Rich with thy hurrying streams, Bright with thy orchard gleems, Dark of hue O candid-fairIn thy soul, with jewelled hair And thy glorious smile divine, Lovilest of all earthly lands, Showering wealth from well-stored hands! Mother, mother mine! Mother sweet, I bow to thee, Mother great and free!
Bharata Maata Ki Jay!!!
பாரத மாதா கீ ஜெய்
Paarukkulae nalla nadu
பாருக்குள்ளே நல்ல நாடு பாரத நாடு
சரித்திர பழம்பெரும் நாடு
அரசியல் நெறிவளர்த்த ஆன்மிக நாடு
மக்கள் ஒன்றுகூடி வாழ்ந்த (வாழும்) நாடு
இதை கவிதையிலே உணர்த்தியவர் பல பேரு
Original Song by Bharathiyar:
ராகம் - இந்துஸ்தானி தாளம் - தோடி
பாருக்குள்ளே நல்ல நாடு - எங்கள் பாரத நாடு.
ஞானத்தி லே பர மோனத்திலே - உயர்
மானத்தி லேஅன்ன தானத்திலே
கானத்தி லேஅமு தாக நிறைந்த
கவிதையி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
தீரத்தி லேபடை வீரத்திலே - நெஞ்சில்
ஈரத்தி லேஉப காரத்திலே
சாரத்தி லேமிகு சாத்திரங் கண்டு
தருவதி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
நன்மையி லேஉடல் வன்மையிலே - செல்வப்
பன்மையி லேமறத் தன்மையிலே
பொன்மயி லொத்திடும் மாதர்தம் கற்பின்
புகழினி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
ஆக்கத்தி லேதொழில் ஊக்கத்திலே - புய
வீக்கத்தி லேஉயர் நோக்கத்திலே
காக்கத் திறல்கொண்ட மல்லர்தம் சேனைக்
கடலினி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
வண்மையி லேஉளத் திண்மையிலே - மனத்
தண்மையி லேமதி நுண்மையிலே
உண்மையி லேதவ றாத புலவர்
உணர்வினி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
யாகத்தி லேதவ வேகத்திலே - தனி
யோகத்தி லேபல போகத்திலே
ஆகத்தி லேதெய்வ பக்திகொண் டார்தம்
அருளினி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
ஆற்றினி லேசுனை யூற்றினிலே - தென்றல்
காற்றினி லேமலைப் பேற்றினிலே
ஏற்றினி லேபயன் ஈந்திடுங் காலி
இனத்தினி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
தோட்டத்தி லேமரக் கூட்டத்திலே - கனி
ஈட்டத்தி லேபயிர் ஊட்டத்திலே
தேட்டத்தி லேஅடங் காத நதியின்
சிறப்பினி லேஉயர் நாடு - இந்தப் (பாருக்குள்ளே)
Invocation to Mother Tamil by Manonmaniam Sundaram Pillai
நீராரும் கடல் உடுத்த நில மடந்தைக் கெழிலொழுகும்
சீராரும் வதனமெனத் திகழ்பரதக் கண்டமிதில்
தெக்கணமும் அதிற்சிறந்த திராவிட நல் திருநாடும்
தக்கசிறு பிறைநுதலும் தரித்தநறும் திலகமுமே!
அத்திலக வாசனைபோல் அனைத்துலகும் இன்பமுற,
எத்திசையும் புகழ்மணக்க இருந்த பெரும் தமிழணங்கே! தமிழணங்கே!
௨ன் சீரிளமைத் திறம்வியந்து | செயல் மறந்து வாழ்த்துதுமே! வாழ்த்துதுமே! வாழ்த்துதுமே!
Bharath is like the face of world land mass clad in wavy seas;
Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant 'Tilak'
is the blessed Dravidian land.
Like the fragrance of that 'Tilak' plunging the world in joy
supreme reigns Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide.
Praise unto You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic
youthfulness, inspires awe and ecstasy."
Some Notes on Neighbours
Nepal is one of the oldest Countries in all of Asia, and was never colonized. 8 of the world’s top 10 tallest Mountains lies in Nepal including the tallest of them all, Mount Everest. Gautam Buddha, who is a founder of Buddhist religion was born in Nepal, in a place called Lumbini. Nepal is very diverse Country with nearly 123 ethnic groups, and more than 100 languages. Nepal is also diverse geographically, with plains, Hills and mountains. Nepal also is one of two Hindu majority Countries in the world.
Both India and Iran share a common heritage. Ancient Sanskrit and Avestan the ancient Language of Iran are closely related. Iran is named from the Aryan origin of Iran. In ancient times India was also known as Aryavrat or land of Aryans.
Country, I (anyone) would like:
1) The citizens should feel a safe and secured life.
2) Basic needs should be made available at affordable cost to everyone. No need for handouts (no free lunch). Tax in any form is a burden to the people, So should be minimum, just to run an efficient government
3) Race (including caste), language and belief must disappear from selecting people for any job. Right person for the right job. Wrong person in any position will damage organizations by wrong actions and will also prevent capable people to work. A country and its subjects should not envy and condemn skills/knowledge/hardwork, but rather, make best use of them in the interest of the development of everyone. Enough Opportunities for every one to make a decent living based on their skills/expertise.
4) Freedom to be unique/different. Individuals can have/express their views with out hurting others.
5) Amity within the country and with other countries.
Some web sites
- India - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India
- http: //knowindia.gov.in/default.php
- http: //www.indianchild.com/
- http: //www.tourismofindia.com/index.htm
- http: //www.countryguide.com/India/
- India Map
- Survey of India Map
Time line (Main rulers)
BC or BCE (Before the Current or Common Era) is the era before CE or AD
- 7500 BC: Early Neolithic culture
- 4000 BC: Mehrgarh Neolithic sites in archaeology begins on the "Kachi plain" of now Balochistan
- 3000 BC: Indus Valley (Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley, Indus signs or script), Saraswathi river, early tamil sangams and south indian civilizations
- 1500 BC: Indo-Iranians, Chaldeans, Akkadians etc, Rigveda (to 1000 BC)
- 500 BC: Magadha, Kalinga, Darius of Persia
- 300 BC: Mauryas, Cholas and Pandyas trade with Greek and Rome
- 100 BC: Indo-Greek kings
- 56 BC: Vikrama Samvat calendar
- 78 CE: Saka era or Shalivahana Sakabda
- 100 CE: Kushan (Kanishka, the third Kushan emperor)
- 200 CE: The Sunga state, Sassanid, Satavahanas
- 300 CE: Ganga, Pallava, Gupta Empire, Kadambas
- 400 CE: Shakas Licchavi, Huns, Vakataka
- 550 CE: Chalukyan, Pallava Gupta, Harshavardhana
- 700 CE: Palas, Rashtrakutas
- 800 CE: Cholas, Pratihara, Pallava
- 950 CE: Rajputs, Chandellas
- 1000 CE: Solanki, Chola, Palas, Mahmud of Ghazni,
- 1200 CE: Yadava, Kakatiyas, Turks, Ghurid,
- 1300 CE: Rajputs, Kadambas, Delhi sultanate (slaves, Khalji, Tughluq, Lodi etc),
- 1500 CE: Maratas, Vijayanagar, Mysore, Bahmani (Deccan sultanates), Mughal/Mogul Afghan, Safavids
- 1600 CE: Maratas (Sivaji), Rajputs, Mughal, European traders
- 1700 CE: Mughal, Nizam, Mysore sultans, Sikhs, Maratas, East India Company, Portugese-French
- 1800 CE: East India Company replaced by British India
- 1900 CE: The Indian National Congress, Muslim League, Justice Party.
- 1947-50 CE: British India became Indian Republic and Pakistan
- 2000 CE: New Political alignments, Globalization, IT age.
Ancient names for India
Tianzhu was also referred to as Wutianzhu (五天竺, literal meaning is "Five Indias"), because there were five geographical regions in India known to the Chinese: Central, Eastern, Western, Northern, and Southern India. In Japan, Tianzhu was pronounced as Tenjiku.
Yindu, Shenduk or Shinduk, Anxi (Parthian Empire) and Daxia (Bactria).
Administrator:NARA is a Consultant by profession and an Engineer by qualification. Nara holds an Engineering Masters degree and have worked 25 years for leading organizations.
Now working part time on country/technology research projects and Maintaining community Web sites.
Spending more time to pursue his interests on studying: ancient scriptures; maths & astronomy; physics; philosophy; history & culture and so on.